Glossary

ACIS 

A standard computer file format for exchanging CAD data, typically from AutoCAD programs. ACIS is an acronym that originally stood for “Andy, Charles and Ian's System.”


Additive manufacturing/ 3D printing

Commonly used interchangably, additive manufacturing (3D printing) involves a CAD model or scan of an object that is reproduced, layer by layer, as a physical three-dimensional object. Stereolithography, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling and direct metal laser sintering are some of the commonly employed additive processes.

 A-SideSometimes called the “cavity,” it is the half of the mould that usually creates the exterior of a cosmetic part. The A-side usually does not have moving parts built into it.


Axial holeThis is a hole that is parallel to the axis of revolution of a turned part, but does not need to be concentric to it.

 

Barrel

A component of the injection-moulding machine wherein the resin pellets are melted, compressed and injected into the mould’s runner system.


Bead blasting

Using abrasives in a pressurised air blast to create a surface texture on the part.


Bevel

Also known as a “chamfer,” it is a flat truncated corner.


Blush

A cosmetic imperfection that is created where the resin is injected into the part, usually visible as a blotchy discolouration on the finished part at the site of the gate.


Boss

A raised stud feature that is used to engage fasteners or support features of other parts passing through them.


Bridge tool

A temporary or interim mould made for the purpose of making production parts until a high-volume production mould is ready.


B-Side

Sometimes called the “core,” it is the half of the mould where ejectors, side-action cams and other complex components are located. On a cosmetic part, the B-side usually creates the inside of the part.


Build platform

The support base on an additive machine where parts are built. The maximum build size of a part is dependent on the size of a machine’s build platform. Many times a build platform will house a number of different parts of varying geometries.


Bumpoff

A feature in the mold with an undercut. To eject the part, it must bend or stretch around the undercut.

 

CAD

Computer-aided design.


Cam

A portion of the mould that is pushed into place as the mould closes, using a cam-actuated slide. Typically, side actions are used to resolve an undercut, or sometimes to allow an undrafted outside wall. As the mould opens, the side action pulls away from the part, allowing the part to be ejected. Also called a “side-action.”


Cavity

The void between the A-side and B-side that is filled to create the injection-moulded part. The A-side of the mould is also sometimes called the cavity.


Chamfer

Also known as a “bevel,” it is a flat truncated corner.


Clamp force

The force required to hold the mould shut so resin cannot escape during injection. Measured in tonnes, as in “we have a 700 tonne press”


Contoured pins

Ejector pins with the ends shaped to match a sloping surface on the part.


Core

A portion of the mould that goes inside a cavity to form the interior of a hollow part. Cores are normally found on the B-side of a mould, thus, the B-side is sometimes called the core.


Core pin

A fixed element in the mould that creates a void in the part. It is often easier to machine a core pin as a separate element and add it to the A-side or B-side as needed. Steel core pins are sometimes used in aluminium moulds to create tall, thin cores that might be too fragile if machined out of the bulk aluminium of the mould.


Core-cavity

A term used to describe a mould created by mating A-side and B-side mould halves.


Cycle timeThe time it takes to make one part including the closing of the mould, the injection of the resin, the solidification of the part, the opening of the mould and the ejection of the part

 

Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)

DMLS employs a fibre laser system that draws onto a surface of atomised metal powder, welding the powder into a solid. After each layer, a blade adds a fresh layer of powder and repeats the process until a final metal part is formed.


Direction of pull

The direction the mould surfaces move when they are moving away from the part surfaces, either when the mould opens or when the part ejects


Draft

A taper applied to the faces of the part that prevent them from being parallel to the motion of the mould opening. This keeps the part from being damaged due to the scraping as the part is ejected out of the mould.


Drying of plastics

Many plastics absorb water and must be dried prior to injection moulding to ensure good cosmetics and material characteristics.


Durometer

A measure of a material's hardness. It is measured on a numeric scale ranging from lower (softer) to higher (harder)

 

Edge gate

An opening aligned with the parting line of the mould where resin flows into the cavity. Edge gates are typically placed on an outside edge of the part.


EDM

Electric Discharge Machining. A mouldmaking method which can create taller, thinner ribs than milling, text on top of ribs and square outside edges on parts.


Ejection

The final stage of the injection-moulding process where the completed part is pushed from the mould using pins or other mechanisms.


Ejector pins

Pins installed in the B-side of the mould that push the part out of the mould when the part has cooled sufficiently.


Elongation at break

How much the material can stretch or deform before breaking. This property of LSR allows for some difficult parts to be surprisingly removed from moulds. For example, LR 3003/50 has an elongation at break of 480 percent.


End mill

A cutting tool that is used to machine a mould.


ESD

Stands for “electro static discharge,” an electrical effect that may necessitate shielding in some applications. Some special grades of plastic are electrically conductive or dissipative and help prevent ESD.

 

Family mould

A mould where more than one cavity is cut into the mould to allow for multiple parts made of the same material to be formed in one cycle. Typically, each cavity forms a different part number. See also “multi-cavity mould.”


Fillet

A curved face where a rib meets a wall, intended to improve the flow of material and eliminate mechanical stress concentrations on the finished part.


Finish

A specific type of surface treatment applied to some or all faces of the part. This treatment can range from a smooth, polished finish to a highly contoured pattern that can obscure surface imperfections and create a better looking or better feeling part.


Flame retardant

A resin formulated to resist burning


Flash

Resin that leaks into a fine gap in the parting lines of the mould to create an undesired thin layer of plastic or liquid silicone rubber.


Flow marks

Visible indications on the finished part that show the flow of plastic within the mould prior to solidification.


Food grade

Resins or mould release spray that are approved for use in the manufacture of parts that will contact food in their application.


Fused deposition modelling (FDM)

With FDM, a wire coil of material is extruded from a print head into successive cross-sectional layers that harden into three-dimensional shapes.

 

Gate

The generic term for the portion of the mould where resin enters the mould cavity.


GF

Glass-filled. This refers to a resin with glass fibres mixed into it. Glass-filled resins are much stronger and more rigid than the corresponding unfilled resin, but are also more brittle.


Gusset

A triangular rib that reinforces areas such as a wall to a floor or a boss to a floor.

 

Hot tip gate

A specialised gate that injects the resin into a face on the A-side of the mould. This type of gate doesn’t require a runner or sprue.

IGES

Initial Graphics Exchange Specification. It is a common file format for exchanging CAD data. Proto Labs can use IGES solid or surface files to create moulded parts.


Injection

The act of forcing molten resin into the mould to form the part.

 

Jetting

Flow marks caused by the resin entering a mould at high speed, typically occurring near a gate.

Knit lines

Also known as “stitch lines” or “weld lines,” and when multiple gates are present, “meld lines.” These are imperfections in the part where separated flows of cooling material meet and rejoin, often resulting in incomplete bonds and/or a visible line.

Layer thickness

The precise thickness of a single additive layer that can reach as small as microns thin. Often, parts will contain thousands of layers.


LIM™

Liquid injection moulding, which is the process used in the moulding of liquid silicone rubber.


Live tooling

Mill-like machining actions in a lathe where a rotating tool removes material from stock. This allows for the creation of features like flats, grooves, slots, and axial or radial holes to be created within the lathe.


Living hinge

Very thin section of plastic used to connect two parts and keep them together while allowing them to open and close. They require careful design and gate placement. A typical application would be the top and bottom of a box.


LSR

Liquid silicone rubber.

 

Medical grade

Resin that may be suitable for use in certain medical applications.


Meld lines

Occurs when multiple gates are present. These are imperfections in the part where separated flows of cooling material meet and rejoin, often resulting in incomplete bonds and/or a visible line.


Metal safe

A change to the part design that requires only the removal of metal from the mould to produce the desired geometry. Typically most important when a part design is changed after the mould has been manufactured, because then the mould can be modified rather than entirely re-machined. It is also commonly called “steel safe.”


Mould release spray

A liquid applied to the mould as a spray to facilitate the ejection of parts from the B-side. It is typically used when the parts are difficult to eject because they are sticking to the mould.


Multi-cavity mould

A mould where more than one cavity is cut into the mould to allow for multiple parts to be formed in one cycle. Typically, if a mould is called “multi-cavity,” the cavities are all the same part number. See also “family mould.”

 

Net shape

The final desired shape of a part; or a shape that does not require additional shaping operations before use.


Nozzle

The tapered fitting on the end of the barrel of the injection-moulding press where the resin enters the sprue.

 

On-axis hole

This is a hole that is concentric to the axis of revolution of the turned part. It is simply a hole on the end of a part and in the centre.

Overflow

A mass of material away from the part, typically at the end of fill, connected by a thin cross-section. The overflow is added to improve part quality and is removed as a secondary operation.

Packing

The practice of using increased pressure when injecting a part to force more plastic into the mould. This is often used to combat sink or fill problems, but also increases the likelihood of flash and may cause the part to stick in to the mould.


Parasolid

A file format for exchanging CAD data.


Part A/Part B

LSR is a two-part compound; these components are kept separate until the LSR moulding process begins.


Parting line

The edge of a part where the mould separates.


Pickouts

A mould insert that remains stuck to the ejected part and has to be pulled out of the part and placed back into the mould before the next cycle.


Porosity

Undesired voids included in a part. Porosity can manifest in many sizes and shapes from many causes. Generally, a porous part will be less strong than a fully dense part.


Post gate

A specialised gate that uses a hole that an ejector pin passes through to inject resin into the mould cavity. This leaves a post vestige that usually needs to be trimmed.


Press

An injection moulding machine.

 

Radial hole

This is a hole formed by live tooling that is perpendicular to the axis of revolution of a turned part, and could be considered a side hole. The centre line of these holes are not required to intersect the axis of revolution.


Radiused

An edge or vertex that has been rounded. Typically, this occurs on part geometries as a natural result of the Proto Labs milling process. When a radius is intentionally added to an edge on a part, it is referred to as a fillet.


Ram

A hydraulic mechanism that pushes the screw forward in the barrel and forces resin into the mould.


Recess An indentation in the plastic part caused by the impact of the ejector pins.


Reinforced resin

Refers to base resins with fillers added for strength. They are particularly susceptible to warp because the fibre orientation tends to follow flow lines, resulting in asymmetric stresses. These resins are typically harder and stronger but also more brittle (i.e. less tough).


Resin

A generic name for chemical compounds that, when injected, form a plastic part. Sometimes just called “plastic.”


Resolution

The level of printed detail achieved on parts built through additive manufacturing. Processes like stereolithography and direct metal laser sintering allow for extremely fine resolutions with the smallest of features.


Rib

A thin, wall-like feature parallel to the mould opening direction, common on plastic parts and used to add support to walls or bosses.


Runner

A channel that resin passes through from the sprue to the gate/s. Typically, runners are parallel to, and contained within, the parting surfaces of the mould.

 

Screw

A device in the barrel that compacts resin pellets to pressurise and melt them prior to injection.


Selective laser sintering (SLS)

During the SLS process, a CO2 laser draws onto a hot bed of thermoplastic powder, where it lightly sinters (fuses) the powder into a solid. After each layer, a roller lays a fresh layer of powder on top of the bed and the process repeats.


Shear

The force between layers of resin as they slide against each other or the surface of the mould. The resulting friction causes some heating of the resin.


Short shot

A part that wasn't completely filled with resin, causing short or missing features.


Shrink

The change in part size as it cools during the moulding process. This is anticipated based on material manufacturer recommendations and built into the mould design before manufacturing.


Shutoff

A feature that forms an internal through-hole in a part by bringing the A-side and B-side in contact, preventing the flow of resin into the through-hole.


Side-action

A portion of the mould that is pushed into place as the mould closes, using a cam-actuated slide. Typically, side-actions are used to resolve an undercut, or sometimes to allow an undrafted outside wall. As the mould opens, the side action pulls away from the part, allowing the part to be ejected. Also called a “cam.”


Sink

Dimples or other distortion in the surface of the part as different areas of the part cool at different rates. These are most commonly caused by excessive material thickness.


Splay

Discoloured, visible streaks in the part, typically caused by moisture in the resin.


Sprue

The first stage in the resin distribution system, where the resin enters the mould. The sprue is perpendicular to the parting faces of the mould and brings resin to the runners, which are typically in the parting surfaces of the mould.


Steel pins

A cylindrical pin for formatting high-aspect-ratio, small-diameter holes in a part. A steel pin is strong enough to handle the stress of ejection and its surface is smooth enough to release cleanly from the part without draft.


Steel safe

Also known as “metal safe” (which is the preferred term when working with aluminium moulds). This refers to a change to the part design that requires only the removal of metal from the mould to produce the desired geometry. Typically most important when a part design is changed after the mould has been manufactured, because then the mould can be modified rather than entirely re-machined.


STEP

Stands for “Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data.” It is a common format for exchanging CAD data.


Stereolithography (SL)

SL uses an ultraviolet laser focused to a small point to draw on the surface of a liquid thermoset resin. Where it draws, the liquid turns to solid. This is repeated in thin, two-dimensional cross-sections that are layered to form complex three-dimensional parts.


Sticking

A problem during the ejection phase of moulding, where a part becomes lodged in one or the other half of the mould, making removal difficult. This is a common issue when the part is not designed with sufficient draft.


Stitch lines

Also known as “weld lines” or “knit lines,” and when multiple gates are present, “meld lines.” These are imperfections in the part where separated flows of cooling material meet and rejoin, often resulting in incomplete bonds and/or a visible line.


STL

Originally stood for “STereoLithography.” It is a common format for transmitting CAD data to rapid prototyping machines and is not suitable for injection moulding.


Straight-pull mould

A mould that uses only two halves to form a cavity that resin is injected into. Generally, this term refers to moulds with no side-actions or other special features used to resolve undercuts.

 

Tab gate

An opening aligned with the parting line of the mould where resin flows into the cavity. These are also referred to as “edge-gates” and are typically placed on an outside edge of the part.


Tear Strip

A feature added to the mould that will be removed from the part after moulding to aid in creating a crisp end on the part. This is often done in conjunction with an overflow to improve the final part quality.


Texture

A specific type of surface treatment applied to some or all faces of the part. This treatment can range from a smooth, polished finish to a highly contoured pattern that can obscure surface imperfections and create a better looking or better feeling part.


Tunnel gate

A gate that is cut through the body of one side of the mould to create a gate that does not leave a mark on the exterior face of the part.


Turning

During the turning process, rod stock is rotated in a lathe machine while a tool is held against the stock to remove material and create a cylindrical part.

 

Undercut

A portion of the part that shadows another portion of the part, creating an interlock between the part and one or both of the mould halves. An example is a hole perpendicular to the mould opening direction bored into the side of a part. An undercut prevents the part from being ejected, or the mould from opening, or both.

Vent

A very small (0.025mm to 0.1mm) opening in the mould cavity, typically at the shutoff surface or via an ejector pin tunnel, that is used to let air escape from a mould while the resin is injected.


Vestige

After moulding, the plastic runner system (or in the case of a hot tip gate, a small dimple of plastic) will remain connected to the part at the location of the gate/s. After the runner is trimmed off (or the hot tip dimple is trimmed), a small imperfection called a “vestige” remains on the part.

 

Wall

A common term for the faces of a hollow part. Consistency in wall thickness is important.


Warp

The curving or bending of a part as it cools that results from stresses as different portions of the part cool and shrink at different rates. Parts made using filled resins may also warp due to the way the fillers align during resin flow. Fillers often shrink at different rates than the matrix resin, and aligned fibres can introduce anisotropic stresses.


Weld lines

Also known as “stitch lines” or “knit lines,” and when multiple gates are present, “meld lines.” These are imperfections in the part where separated flows of cooling material meet and rejoin, often resulting in incomplete bonds and/or a visible line.


Wireframe

A type of CAD model consisting only of lines and curves, in 2D or 3D. Wirefame models are not suitable for rapid-injection moulding.